Ecological Urbanism in Modern Asia
Architectural Internalization Demonstration School, Associate Professor
当今世界正经历着一场愈演愈烈的灾难：由工业化引发的气候危机。虽然自十九世纪以来，人们就对这场严峻危机的严重性进行了分析和预测，但基于对气候危机的理解所提出的缓和其影响的城市议题却直到最近才提出。然而，一部分当代方案确实与现代建筑师和规划师的议题相近，面对日益盛行的工业城市化时，他们思考如何创造健康宜居的城市环境，这导致城市的自然环境与社会生活发生突变。为改善不健康的和遭到破坏的生活环境，乌托邦和模范住区的想法被提出。规划师、建筑师和景观设计师们互相交换想法，创造了一个活跃的思维环境。现如今这一危机已发展成为更为严峻的全球性和普遍性问题。当代设计师和规划师正提出各种方案，以重新思考和重新定义与水、碳、空气和能源循环有关的城市形态。由此而言，城市的区域气候、地理、经济和社会条件已成为寻求有效补救措施的重要参数，以应对全球危机的地方性影响。•探讨“现代”这一概念在城市规划设计中是如何随时间变化的•回顾现、当代建筑师、规划师和景观设计师提出的使城市“更加绿色环保”的相关建议•对气候变化的适应和减缓措施的现状与工业城市问题的现代对策进行比较分析•采取学术性、批判性的方法促进对绿色城市的整体理解World is going through an intensifying catastrophe: the climate crisis caused by industrialization. While the analysis and the projections regarding the severity of the looming crisis have been made since the nineteenth century, urban proposals to understand and to mitigate its effects have been fairly recent. Nevertheless, some of these contemporary schemes are indeed similar to the proposals of the modern architects and planners who pondered upon creating healthy and comfortable urban environments in the face of the prevailing industrial urbanization that caused abrupt changes not only in natural aspects of the urban setting but also its social life. Solutions to the unhealthy and disrupted living conditions were proposed in the form of utopias and model settlements. A lively intellectual environment was created and ideas were exchanged between planners, architects and landscape architects. Today the crisis has become global, pervasive and much more severe. Contemporary designers and planners are proposing various schemes to rethink and redefine the urban form with respect to the cycles of water, carbon, air, and energy. In this respect, the regional climatic, geographic, economic, and social conditions of the cities become important parameters in the search for productive remedies to tackle the local effects of the global crisis. Along these lines, the aim of the course is:• to define and discuss the premises and the effects of industrialization and modernism with respect to cities• to investigate into how the notion of the “modern” changed in time in urban design planning• to review what the modern and the contemporary architects, planners and landscape architects have proposed to make the cities “greener”• to make comparative analysis between the current state of climate change adaptation and mitigation measures and the modern responses to the problems of the industrial city• to facilitate an informed and critical approach to the overall understanding of green cities.